Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a lung vascular disease with marked increases in pulmonary vascular resistance and pulmonary artery pressure (>25 mmHg at rest). In PH patients, increases in pulmonary vascular resistance lead to impaired cardiac output and reduced exercise tolerance. If untreated, PH progresses to right heart failure and premature lethality. The mechanisms that control the pathogenesis of PH are incompletely understood, but evidence from human and animal studies implicate nitrative stress in the development of PH. Increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) result in nitrative stress, which in turn induces posttranslational modification of key proteins important for maintaining pulmonary vascular homeostasis. This affects their functions and thereby contributes to the pathogenesis of PH. In this chapter, molecular mechanisms underlying nitrative stress-induced PH are reviewed, molecular sources of ROS and RNS are delineated, and evidence of nitrative stress in PH patients is described. A better understanding of such mechanisms could lead to the development of novel treatments for PH.