Molecular Encapsulation of Naphthalene Diimide (NDI) Based π-Conjugated Polymers: A Tool for Understanding Photoluminescence

Jeroen Royakkers, Kunping Guo, Daniel T.W. Toolan, Liang Wen Feng, Alessandro Minotto, Daniel G. Congrave, Magda Danowska, Weixuan Zeng, Andrew D. Bond, Mohammed Al-Hashimi, Tobin J. Marks, Antonio Facchetti, Franco Cacialli, Hugo Bronstein*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


Conjugated polymers are an important class of chromophores for optoelectronic devices. Understanding and controlling their excited state properties, in particular, radiative and non-radiative recombination processes are among the greatest challenges that must be overcome. We report the synthesis and characterization of a molecularly encapsulated naphthalene diimide-based polymer, one of the most successfully used motifs, and explore its structural and optical properties. The molecular encapsulation enables a detailed understanding of the effect of interpolymer interactions. We reveal that the non-encapsulated analogue P(NDI-2OD-T) undergoes aggregation enhanced emission; an effect that is suppressed upon encapsulation due to an increasing π-interchain stacking distance. This suggests that decreasing π-stacking distances may be an attractive method to enhance the radiative properties of conjugated polymers in contrast to the current paradigm where it is viewed as a source of optical quenching.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)25005-25012
Number of pages8
JournalAngewandte Chemie - International Edition
Issue number47
StatePublished - Nov 15 2021


  • conjugated polymers
  • encapsulation
  • macrocycles
  • organic electronics
  • photoluminescence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • Catalysis


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