Molecular mimicry as an inducing trigger for CNS autoimmune demyelinating disease

Emily M.L. Chastain, Stephen D. Miller*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

64 Scopus citations

Abstract

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that affects about 0.1% of the worldwide population. This deleterious disease is marked by infiltration of myelin-specific T cells that attack the protective myelin sheath that surrounds CNS nerve axons. Upon demyelination, saltatory nerve conduction is disrupted, and patients experience neurologic deficiencies. The exact cause for MS remains unknown, although most evidence supports the hypothesis that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to disease development. Epidemiologic evidence supports a role for environmental pathogens, such as viruses, as potentially key contributors to MS induction. Pathogens can induce autoimmunity via several well-studied mechanisms with the most postulated being molecular mimicry. Molecular mimicry occurs when T cells specific for peptide epitopes derived from pathogens cross-react with self-epitopes, leading to autoimmune tissue destruction. In this review, we discuss an in vivo virus-induced mouse model of MS developed in our laboratory, which has contributed greatly to our understanding of the mechanisms underlying molecular mimicry-induced CNS autoimmunity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)227-238
Number of pages12
JournalImmunological Reviews
Volume245
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2012

Keywords

  • Autoimmunity
  • Cytotoxic T cells
  • Dendritic cells
  • Neuroimmunology
  • T-cell receptors
  • Th1/Th2/Th17 cells

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology

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