Surface- and tip-enhanced Raman and LSPR spectroscopies have developed over the past 15 years as unique tools for uncovering the properties of single particles and single molecules that are unobservable in ensemble measurements. Measurements of individual events provide insight into the distribution of molecular properties that are averaged over in ensemble experiments. Raman and LSPR spectroscopy can provide detailed information on the identity of molecular species and changes in the local environment, respectively. In this review a detailed discussion is presented on single-molecule and single-particle Raman and LSPR spectroscopy focusing on the major developments in the fields and applications of the techniques.
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