The biological characteristics of the tumor are used to estimate prognosis and select appropriate systemic therapy for patients with early-stage breast cancer. Well-established molecular prognostic factors include the estrogen and progesterone receptors, proliferation markers, and the HER2 gene. Novel tumor markers with potential clinical utility include molecules involved in cell transformation, invasion, and metastases. We review the available data supporting the utility of established prognostic and predictive molecular factors, and discuss challenges for integrating novel molecular markers into clinical practice.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Cancer Research