Molecular prognostic factors for breast cancer metastasis and survival

Francisco J. Esteva*, Aysegul A. Sahin, Massimo Cristofanilli, Banu Arun, Gabriel N. Hortobagyi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

73 Scopus citations


The biological characteristics of the tumor are used to estimate prognosis and select appropriate systemic therapy for patients with early-stage breast cancer. Well-established molecular prognostic factors include the estrogen and progesterone receptors, proliferation markers, and the HER2 gene. Novel tumor markers with potential clinical utility include molecules involved in cell transformation, invasion, and metastases. We review the available data supporting the utility of established prognostic and predictive molecular factors, and discuss challenges for integrating novel molecular markers into clinical practice.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)319-328
Number of pages10
JournalSeminars in Radiation Oncology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 2002

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cancer Research


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