Moment arms of the human digital flexors

Orrin I. Franko, Taylor M. Winters, Timothy F. Tirrell, Eric R. Hentzen, Richard L. Lieber*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


For the extrinsic hand flexors (flexor digitorum profundus, FDP; flexor digitorum superficialis, FDS; flexor pollicis longus, FPL), moment arm corresponds to the tendon's distance from the center of the metacarpalphalangeal (MP), proximal interphalangeal (PIP), or distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint. The clinical value of establishing accurate moment arms has been highlighted for biomechanical modeling, the development of robotic hands, designing rehabilitation protocols, and repairing flexor tendon pulleys (Brand et al., 1975; An et al., 1983; Thompson and Giurintano, 1989; Deshpande et al., 2010; Wu et al., 2010). In this study, we define the moment arms for all of the extrinsic flexor tendons of the hand across all digital joints for all digits in cadaveric hands.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1987-1990
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Biomechanics
Issue number10
StatePublished - Jul 7 2011


  • Biomechanics
  • Flexor tendon
  • Hand
  • Moment arm
  • Pulley

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Rehabilitation


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