Monitoring of transglutaminase2 under different oxidative stress conditions

Daniela Caccamo, Monica Currò, Nadia Ferlazzo, Salvatore Condello, Riccardo Ientile*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

33 Scopus citations


Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is a multifunctional calcium-dependent enzyme which catalyzes the post-translational protein crosslinking with formation of intra- or intermolecular epsilon(gamma-glutamyl)lysine bonds or polyamine incorporation. The up-regulation and activation of TG2 have been reported in a variety of physiological events, including cell differentiation, signal transduction, apoptosis, andwound healing, as well as in cell response to stress evoked by different internal and external stimuli.Herewe reviewTG2 role in cell response to redox state imbalance both under physiological and pathological conditions, such as neurodegenerative disorders, inflammation, autoimmune diseases and cataractogenesis, in which oxidative stress plays a pathogenetic role and also accelerates disease progression. The increase in TG activity together with mitochondrial impairment and collapse of antioxidant enzymatic cell defences have been reported to be the prominent biochemical alterations becoming evident prior to neurodegeneration. Moreover, oxidative stress-induced TG2 pathway is involved in autophagy inhibition and aggresome formation, and TG2 has been suggested to function as a link between oxidative stress and inflammation by driving the decision as to whether a protein should undergo SUMO-mediated regulation or proteasomal degradation. Literature data suggest a strong association between oxidative stress and TG2 up-regulation, which in turn may result in cell survival or apoptosis, depending on cell type, kind of stressor, duration of insult, as well as TG2 intracellular localization and activity state. In particular, it may be suggested that TG2 plays a pro-survival role when the alteration of cell redox state homeostasis is not associated with intracellular calcium increase triggering TG2 transamidation activity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1037-1043
Number of pages7
JournalAmino Acids
Issue number2-3
StatePublished - Feb 1 2012


  • Autoimmune diseases
  • Neurodegeneration
  • Oxidative stress
  • Transglutaminase 2

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Organic Chemistry


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