Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurological disorder that results in progressive dopamine depletion within the substantia nigra. This dopaminergic loss leads to bradykinesia, tremor, postural instability and/or rigidity, and ultimately a decline in functional independence. This article reviews the effect PD has across physiological, cognitive, and functional domains and then reviews how various interventions may ameliorate some deficits within each of these domains. While pharmacological and surgical treatments are typically used to treat PD, this review suggests that it may be highly desirable to add adjunctive treatments, such as exercise, to current interventions used for individuals with PD.
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