Moxetumomab pasudotox (MP) is an immunotoxin that recently received US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for the treatment of hairy cell leukemia (HCL) that has failed at least 2 prior lines of therapy, including a purine analog.MPis a recombinant immunotoxin that consists of an anti-CD22 immunoglobulin variable domain genetically joined to Pseudomonas exotoxin (PE38). Unlike most antibody-drug conjugates, which use a chemical linker, recombinant DNA techniques are used to produce MP. MP and its predecessor, BL22, were initially developed to treat non-Hodgkin lymphoma, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and HCL. However, MP was found to be particularly effective in HCL due to the high level of CD22 cell-surface expression. The recent pivotal phase 3 trial of MP in relapsed/refractory HCL demonstrated a durable complete remission rate of 30%, and 85% of complete responders achieved minimal residual disease negativity, which is associated with improved disease-free survival outcomes in HCL. In addition to an exceptional depth of response, MP appears to be less immunosuppressive than purine analogs. MP is generally well tolerated but has unique toxicities, including capillary leak syndrome and hemolytic uremic syndrome, which are poorly understood. This review will encompass the preclinical and clinical development of MP, with particular attention to its current indication in HCL.
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