Purpose To quantify the two principal forms of hepatic storage iron, diffuse, soluble iron (primarily ferritin), and aggregated, insoluble iron (primarily hemosiderin) using a new MRI method in patients with transfusional iron overload. Materials and Methods Six healthy volunteers and 20 patients with transfusion-dependent thalassemia syndromes and iron overload were examined. Ferritin- and hemosiderin-like iron were determined based on the measurement of two distinct relaxation parameters: the "reduced" transverse relaxation rate, RR2, and the "aggregation index," A, using three sets of Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) datasets with different interecho spacings. Agarose phantoms, simulating the relaxation and susceptibility properties of tissue with different concentrations of dispersed (ferritin-like) and aggregated (hemosiderin-like) iron, were used for validation. Results Both phantom and in vivo human data confirmed that transverse relaxation components associated with the dispersed and aggregated iron could be separated using the two-parameter (RR2, A) method. The MRI-determined total hepatic storage iron was highly correlated (r = 0.95) with measurements derived from biopsy or biosusceptometry. As total hepatic storage iron increased, the proportion stored as aggregated iron became greater. Conclusion This method provides a new means for noninvasive MRI determination of the partition of hepatic storage iron between ferritin and hemosiderin in iron overload disorders.
- ferritin, hemosiderin, iron quantification
- hepatic storage iron
- iron overload
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging