Multi and mixed 3D-printing of graphene-hydroxyapatite hybrid materials for complex tissue engineering

Adam E. Jakus, Ramille N. Shah*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

49 Scopus citations

Abstract

With the emergence of three-dimensional (3D)-printing (3DP) as a vital tool in tissue engineering and medicine, there is an ever growing need to develop new biomaterials that can be 3D-printed and also emulate the compositional, structural, and functional complexities of human tissues and organs. In this work, we probe the 3D-printable biomaterials spectrum by combining two recently established functional 3D-printable particle-laden biomaterial inks: one that contains hydroxyapatite microspheres (hyperelastic bone, HB) and another that contains graphene nanoflakes (3D-graphene, 3DG). We demonstrate that not only can these distinct, osteogenic, and neurogenic inks be co-3D-printed to create complex, multimaterial constructs, but that composite inks of HB and 3DG can also be synthesized. Specifically, the printability, microstructural, mechanical, electrical, and biological properties of a hybrid material comprised of 1:1 HA:graphene by volume is investigated. The resulting HB-3DG hybrid exhibits mixed characteristics of the two distinct systems, while maintaining 3D-printability, electrical conductivity, and flexibility. In vitro assessment of HB-3DG using mesenchymal stem cells demonstrates the hybrid material supports cell viability and proliferation, as well as significantly upregulates both osteogenic and neurogenic gene expression over 14 days. This work ultimately demonstrates a significant step forward towards being able to 3D-print graded, multicompositional, and multifunctional constructs from hybrid inks for complex composite tissue engineering.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)274-283
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part A
Volume105
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2017

Keywords

  • 3D printing
  • graphene
  • hydroxyapatite
  • neurogenesis
  • osteogenesis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Metals and Alloys

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