Multi-messenger observations of a binary neutron star merger

LIGO Scientific Collaboration and Virgo Collaboration, SKA South Africa/MeerKAT, Fermi GBM, IceCube Collaboration, AstroSat Cadmium Zinc Telluride Imager Team, IPN Collaboration, The Insight-Hxmt Collaboration, ANTARES Collaboration, The Swift Collaboration, AGILE Team, The 1M2H Team, The Dark Energy Camera GW-EM Collaboration and the DES Collaboration, The DLT40 Collaboration, GRAWITA: GRAvitational Wave Inaf TeAm, ATCA: Australia Telescope Compact Array, ASKAP: Australian SKA Pathfinder, Las Cumbres Observatory Group, OzGrav, DWF (Deeper Wider Faster program) AST3 and CAASTRO Collaborations, The VINROUGE Collaboration, MASTER Collaboration & 29 others J-GEM, GROWTH JAGWAR Caltech-NRAO TTU-NRAO and NuSTAR Collaborations, Pan-STARRS, TZAC Consortium, The MAXI Team, KU Collaboration, Nordic Optical Telescope, ePESSTO, GROND, Texas Tech University, SALT Group, TOROS: Transient Robotic Observatory of the South Collaboration, The BOOTES Collaboration, MWA: Murchison Widefield Array, IKI-GW Follow-up Collaboration, The CALET Collaboration, H.E.S.S. Collaboration, LOFAR Collaboration, LWA: Long Wavelength Array, HAWC Collaboration, The Pierre Auger Collaboration, ALMA Collaboration, Euro VLBI Team, Pi of the Sky Collaboration, The Chandra Team at McGill University, DFN: Desert Fireball Network, ATLAS, High Time Resolution Universe Survey, RIMAS and RATIR

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

729 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

On 2017 August 17 a binary neutron star coalescence candidate (later designated GW170817) with merger time 12:41:04 UTC was observed through gravitational waves by the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo detectors. The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor independently detected a gamma-ray burst (GRB 170817A) with a time delay of ~1.7 s with respect to the merger time. From the gravitational-wave signal, the source was initially localized to a sky region of 31 deg2 at a luminosity distance of 40 8 8-+ Mpc and with component masses consistent with neutron stars. The component masses were later measured to be in the range 0.86 to 2.26 M. An extensive observing campaign was launched across the electromagnetic spectrum leading to the discovery of a bright optical transient (SSS17a, now with the IAU identification of AT 2017gfo) in NGC 4993 (at ~40 Mpc) less than 11 hours after the merger by the One-Meter, Two Hemisphere (1M2H) team using the 1 m Swope Telescope. The optical transient was independently detected by multiple teams within an hour. Subsequent observations targeted the object and its environment. Early ultraviolet observations revealed a blue transient that faded within 48 hours. Optical and infrared observations showed a redward evolution over ~10 days. Following early non-detections, X-ray and radio emission were discovered at the transient's position ~9 and ~16 days, respectively, after the merger. Both the X-ray and radio emission likely arise from a physical process that is distinct from the one that generates the UV/optical/near-infrared emission. No ultra-high-energy gamma-rays and no neutrino candidates consistent with the source were found in follow-up searches. These observations support the hypothesis that GW170817 was produced by the merger of two neutron stars in NGC4993 followed by a short gamma-ray burst (GRB 170817A) and a kilonova/macronova powered by the radioactive decay of r-process nuclei synthesized in the ejecta.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberL12
JournalAstrophysical Journal Letters
Volume848
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2017

Fingerprint

binary stars
merger
neutron stars
gamma ray bursts
radio emission
gravitational waves
LIGO (observatory)
electromagnetic spectra
radioactive decay
radio
ejecta
hemispheres
coalescing
sky
monitors
coalescence
x rays
time lag
neutrinos
luminosity

Keywords

  • Gravitational waves
  • Stars: neutron

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

LIGO Scientific Collaboration and Virgo Collaboration, SKA South Africa/MeerKAT, Fermi GBM, IceCube Collaboration, AstroSat Cadmium Zinc Telluride Imager Team, IPN Collaboration, ... RIMAS and RATIR (2017). Multi-messenger observations of a binary neutron star merger. Astrophysical Journal Letters, 848(2), [L12]. https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/aa91c9
LIGO Scientific Collaboration and Virgo Collaboration ; SKA South Africa/MeerKAT ; Fermi GBM ; IceCube Collaboration ; AstroSat Cadmium Zinc Telluride Imager Team ; IPN Collaboration ; The Insight-Hxmt Collaboration ; ANTARES Collaboration ; The Swift Collaboration ; AGILE Team ; The 1M2H Team ; The Dark Energy Camera GW-EM Collaboration and the DES Collaboration ; The DLT40 Collaboration ; GRAWITA: GRAvitational Wave Inaf TeAm ; ATCA: Australia Telescope Compact Array ; ASKAP: Australian SKA Pathfinder ; Las Cumbres Observatory Group ; OzGrav, DWF (Deeper Wider Faster program) AST3 and CAASTRO Collaborations ; The VINROUGE Collaboration ; MASTER Collaboration ; J-GEM ; GROWTH JAGWAR Caltech-NRAO TTU-NRAO and NuSTAR Collaborations ; Pan-STARRS ; TZAC Consortium ; The MAXI Team ; KU Collaboration ; Nordic Optical Telescope ; ePESSTO ; GROND ; Texas Tech University ; SALT Group ; TOROS: Transient Robotic Observatory of the South Collaboration ; The BOOTES Collaboration ; MWA: Murchison Widefield Array ; IKI-GW Follow-up Collaboration ; The CALET Collaboration ; H.E.S.S. Collaboration ; LOFAR Collaboration ; LWA: Long Wavelength Array ; HAWC Collaboration ; The Pierre Auger Collaboration ; ALMA Collaboration ; Euro VLBI Team ; Pi of the Sky Collaboration ; The Chandra Team at McGill University ; DFN: Desert Fireball Network ; ATLAS ; High Time Resolution Universe Survey ; RIMAS and RATIR. / Multi-messenger observations of a binary neutron star merger. In: Astrophysical Journal Letters. 2017 ; Vol. 848, No. 2.
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title = "Multi-messenger observations of a binary neutron star merger",
abstract = "On 2017 August 17 a binary neutron star coalescence candidate (later designated GW170817) with merger time 12:41:04 UTC was observed through gravitational waves by the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo detectors. The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor independently detected a gamma-ray burst (GRB 170817A) with a time delay of ~1.7 s with respect to the merger time. From the gravitational-wave signal, the source was initially localized to a sky region of 31 deg2 at a luminosity distance of 40 8 8-+ Mpc and with component masses consistent with neutron stars. The component masses were later measured to be in the range 0.86 to 2.26 M. An extensive observing campaign was launched across the electromagnetic spectrum leading to the discovery of a bright optical transient (SSS17a, now with the IAU identification of AT 2017gfo) in NGC 4993 (at ~40 Mpc) less than 11 hours after the merger by the One-Meter, Two Hemisphere (1M2H) team using the 1 m Swope Telescope. The optical transient was independently detected by multiple teams within an hour. Subsequent observations targeted the object and its environment. Early ultraviolet observations revealed a blue transient that faded within 48 hours. Optical and infrared observations showed a redward evolution over ~10 days. Following early non-detections, X-ray and radio emission were discovered at the transient's position ~9 and ~16 days, respectively, after the merger. Both the X-ray and radio emission likely arise from a physical process that is distinct from the one that generates the UV/optical/near-infrared emission. No ultra-high-energy gamma-rays and no neutrino candidates consistent with the source were found in follow-up searches. These observations support the hypothesis that GW170817 was produced by the merger of two neutron stars in NGC4993 followed by a short gamma-ray burst (GRB 170817A) and a kilonova/macronova powered by the radioactive decay of r-process nuclei synthesized in the ejecta.",
keywords = "Gravitational waves, Stars: neutron",
author = "{LIGO Scientific Collaboration and Virgo Collaboration} and {SKA South Africa/MeerKAT} and {Fermi GBM} and {IceCube Collaboration} and {AstroSat Cadmium Zinc Telluride Imager Team} and {IPN Collaboration} and {The Insight-Hxmt Collaboration} and {ANTARES Collaboration} and {The Swift Collaboration} and {AGILE Team} and {The 1M2H Team} and {The Dark Energy Camera GW-EM Collaboration and the DES Collaboration} and {The DLT40 Collaboration} and {GRAWITA: GRAvitational Wave Inaf TeAm} and {ATCA: Australia Telescope Compact Array} and {ASKAP: Australian SKA Pathfinder} and {Las Cumbres Observatory Group} and {OzGrav, DWF (Deeper Wider Faster program) AST3 and CAASTRO Collaborations} and {The VINROUGE Collaboration} and {MASTER Collaboration} and J-GEM and {GROWTH JAGWAR Caltech-NRAO TTU-NRAO and NuSTAR Collaborations} and Pan-STARRS and {TZAC Consortium} and {The MAXI Team} and {KU Collaboration} and {Nordic Optical Telescope} and ePESSTO and GROND and {Texas Tech University} and {SALT Group} and {TOROS: Transient Robotic Observatory of the South Collaboration} and {The BOOTES Collaboration} and {MWA: Murchison Widefield Array} and {IKI-GW Follow-up Collaboration} and {The CALET Collaboration} and {H.E.S.S. Collaboration} and {LOFAR Collaboration} and {LWA: Long Wavelength Array} and {HAWC Collaboration} and {The Pierre Auger Collaboration} and {ALMA Collaboration} and {Euro VLBI Team} and {Pi of the Sky Collaboration} and {The Chandra Team at McGill University} and {DFN: Desert Fireball Network} and ATLAS and {High Time Resolution Universe Survey} and {RIMAS and RATIR} and Abbott, {B. P.} and R. Abbott and Abbott, {T. D.} and F. Acernese and K. Ackley and C. Adams and T. Adams and P. Addesso and Adhikari, {R. X.} and Adya, {V. B.} and C. Affeldt and M. Afrough and B. Agarwal and M. Agathos and K. Agatsuma and N. Aggarwal and Aguiar, {O. D.} and L. Aiello and A. Ain and P. Ajith and B. Allen and G. Allen and A. Allocca and Altin, {P. A.} and A. Amato and A. Ananyeva and Anderson, {S. B.} and Anderson, {W. G.} and Angelova, {S. V.} and S. Antier and S. Appert and K. Arai and Araya, {M. C.} and Areeda, {J. S.} and N. Arnaud and Arun, {K. G.} and S. Ascenzi and G. Ashton and M. Ast and Aston, {S. M.} and P. Astone and Atallah, {D. V.} and P. Aufmuth and C. Aulbert and Berry, {Christopher Philip Luke} and Vicky Kalogera and Larson, {Shane Louis} and Shahriar, {Selim M} and Wen-fai Fong and Raffaella Margutti",
year = "2017",
month = "1",
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doi = "10.3847/2041-8213/aa91c9",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "848",
journal = "Astrophysical Journal Letters",
issn = "2041-8205",
publisher = "IOP Publishing Ltd.",
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LIGO Scientific Collaboration and Virgo Collaboration, SKA South Africa/MeerKAT, Fermi GBM, IceCube Collaboration, AstroSat Cadmium Zinc Telluride Imager Team, IPN Collaboration, The Insight-Hxmt Collaboration, ANTARES Collaboration, The Swift Collaboration, AGILE Team, The 1M2H Team, The Dark Energy Camera GW-EM Collaboration and the DES Collaboration, The DLT40 Collaboration, GRAWITA: GRAvitational Wave Inaf TeAm, ATCA: Australia Telescope Compact Array, ASKAP: Australian SKA Pathfinder, Las Cumbres Observatory Group, OzGrav, DWF (Deeper Wider Faster program) AST3 and CAASTRO Collaborations, The VINROUGE Collaboration, MASTER Collaboration, J-GEM, GROWTH JAGWAR Caltech-NRAO TTU-NRAO and NuSTAR Collaborations, Pan-STARRS, TZAC Consortium, The MAXI Team, KU Collaboration, Nordic Optical Telescope, ePESSTO, GROND, Texas Tech University, SALT Group, TOROS: Transient Robotic Observatory of the South Collaboration, The BOOTES Collaboration, MWA: Murchison Widefield Array, IKI-GW Follow-up Collaboration, The CALET Collaboration, H.E.S.S. Collaboration, LOFAR Collaboration, LWA: Long Wavelength Array, HAWC Collaboration, The Pierre Auger Collaboration, ALMA Collaboration, Euro VLBI Team, Pi of the Sky Collaboration, The Chandra Team at McGill University, DFN: Desert Fireball Network, ATLAS, High Time Resolution Universe Survey & RIMAS and RATIR 2017, 'Multi-messenger observations of a binary neutron star merger', Astrophysical Journal Letters, vol. 848, no. 2, L12. https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/aa91c9

Multi-messenger observations of a binary neutron star merger. / LIGO Scientific Collaboration and Virgo Collaboration; SKA South Africa/MeerKAT; Fermi GBM; IceCube Collaboration; AstroSat Cadmium Zinc Telluride Imager Team; IPN Collaboration; The Insight-Hxmt Collaboration; ANTARES Collaboration; The Swift Collaboration; AGILE Team; The 1M2H Team; The Dark Energy Camera GW-EM Collaboration and the DES Collaboration; The DLT40 Collaboration; GRAWITA: GRAvitational Wave Inaf TeAm; ATCA: Australia Telescope Compact Array; ASKAP: Australian SKA Pathfinder; Las Cumbres Observatory Group; OzGrav, DWF (Deeper Wider Faster program) AST3 and CAASTRO Collaborations; The VINROUGE Collaboration; MASTER Collaboration; J-GEM; GROWTH JAGWAR Caltech-NRAO TTU-NRAO and NuSTAR Collaborations; Pan-STARRS; TZAC Consortium; The MAXI Team; KU Collaboration; Nordic Optical Telescope; ePESSTO; GROND; Texas Tech University; SALT Group; TOROS: Transient Robotic Observatory of the South Collaboration; The BOOTES Collaboration; MWA: Murchison Widefield Array; IKI-GW Follow-up Collaboration; The CALET Collaboration; H.E.S.S. Collaboration; LOFAR Collaboration; LWA: Long Wavelength Array; HAWC Collaboration; The Pierre Auger Collaboration; ALMA Collaboration; Euro VLBI Team; Pi of the Sky Collaboration; The Chandra Team at McGill University; DFN: Desert Fireball Network; ATLAS; High Time Resolution Universe Survey; RIMAS and RATIR.

In: Astrophysical Journal Letters, Vol. 848, No. 2, L12, 01.01.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Multi-messenger observations of a binary neutron star merger

AU - LIGO Scientific Collaboration and Virgo Collaboration

AU - SKA South Africa/MeerKAT

AU - Fermi GBM

AU - IceCube Collaboration

AU - AstroSat Cadmium Zinc Telluride Imager Team

AU - IPN Collaboration

AU - The Insight-Hxmt Collaboration

AU - ANTARES Collaboration

AU - The Swift Collaboration

AU - AGILE Team

AU - The 1M2H Team

AU - The Dark Energy Camera GW-EM Collaboration and the DES Collaboration

AU - The DLT40 Collaboration

AU - GRAWITA: GRAvitational Wave Inaf TeAm

AU - ATCA: Australia Telescope Compact Array

AU - ASKAP: Australian SKA Pathfinder

AU - Las Cumbres Observatory Group

AU - OzGrav, DWF (Deeper Wider Faster program) AST3 and CAASTRO Collaborations

AU - The VINROUGE Collaboration

AU - MASTER Collaboration

AU - J-GEM

AU - GROWTH JAGWAR Caltech-NRAO TTU-NRAO and NuSTAR Collaborations

AU - Pan-STARRS

AU - TZAC Consortium

AU - The MAXI Team

AU - KU Collaboration

AU - Nordic Optical Telescope

AU - ePESSTO

AU - GROND

AU - Texas Tech University

AU - SALT Group

AU - TOROS: Transient Robotic Observatory of the South Collaboration

AU - The BOOTES Collaboration

AU - MWA: Murchison Widefield Array

AU - IKI-GW Follow-up Collaboration

AU - The CALET Collaboration

AU - H.E.S.S. Collaboration

AU - LOFAR Collaboration

AU - LWA: Long Wavelength Array

AU - HAWC Collaboration

AU - The Pierre Auger Collaboration

AU - ALMA Collaboration

AU - Euro VLBI Team

AU - Pi of the Sky Collaboration

AU - The Chandra Team at McGill University

AU - DFN: Desert Fireball Network

AU - ATLAS

AU - High Time Resolution Universe Survey

AU - RIMAS and RATIR

AU - Abbott, B. P.

AU - Abbott, R.

AU - Abbott, T. D.

AU - Acernese, F.

AU - Ackley, K.

AU - Adams, C.

AU - Adams, T.

AU - Addesso, P.

AU - Adhikari, R. X.

AU - Adya, V. B.

AU - Affeldt, C.

AU - Afrough, M.

AU - Agarwal, B.

AU - Agathos, M.

AU - Agatsuma, K.

AU - Aggarwal, N.

AU - Aguiar, O. D.

AU - Aiello, L.

AU - Ain, A.

AU - Ajith, P.

AU - Allen, B.

AU - Allen, G.

AU - Allocca, A.

AU - Altin, P. A.

AU - Amato, A.

AU - Ananyeva, A.

AU - Anderson, S. B.

AU - Anderson, W. G.

AU - Angelova, S. V.

AU - Antier, S.

AU - Appert, S.

AU - Arai, K.

AU - Araya, M. C.

AU - Areeda, J. S.

AU - Arnaud, N.

AU - Arun, K. G.

AU - Ascenzi, S.

AU - Ashton, G.

AU - Ast, M.

AU - Aston, S. M.

AU - Astone, P.

AU - Atallah, D. V.

AU - Aufmuth, P.

AU - Aulbert, C.

AU - Berry, Christopher Philip Luke

AU - Kalogera, Vicky

AU - Larson, Shane Louis

AU - Shahriar, Selim M

AU - Fong, Wen-fai

AU - Margutti, Raffaella

PY - 2017/1/1

Y1 - 2017/1/1

N2 - On 2017 August 17 a binary neutron star coalescence candidate (later designated GW170817) with merger time 12:41:04 UTC was observed through gravitational waves by the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo detectors. The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor independently detected a gamma-ray burst (GRB 170817A) with a time delay of ~1.7 s with respect to the merger time. From the gravitational-wave signal, the source was initially localized to a sky region of 31 deg2 at a luminosity distance of 40 8 8-+ Mpc and with component masses consistent with neutron stars. The component masses were later measured to be in the range 0.86 to 2.26 M. An extensive observing campaign was launched across the electromagnetic spectrum leading to the discovery of a bright optical transient (SSS17a, now with the IAU identification of AT 2017gfo) in NGC 4993 (at ~40 Mpc) less than 11 hours after the merger by the One-Meter, Two Hemisphere (1M2H) team using the 1 m Swope Telescope. The optical transient was independently detected by multiple teams within an hour. Subsequent observations targeted the object and its environment. Early ultraviolet observations revealed a blue transient that faded within 48 hours. Optical and infrared observations showed a redward evolution over ~10 days. Following early non-detections, X-ray and radio emission were discovered at the transient's position ~9 and ~16 days, respectively, after the merger. Both the X-ray and radio emission likely arise from a physical process that is distinct from the one that generates the UV/optical/near-infrared emission. No ultra-high-energy gamma-rays and no neutrino candidates consistent with the source were found in follow-up searches. These observations support the hypothesis that GW170817 was produced by the merger of two neutron stars in NGC4993 followed by a short gamma-ray burst (GRB 170817A) and a kilonova/macronova powered by the radioactive decay of r-process nuclei synthesized in the ejecta.

AB - On 2017 August 17 a binary neutron star coalescence candidate (later designated GW170817) with merger time 12:41:04 UTC was observed through gravitational waves by the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo detectors. The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor independently detected a gamma-ray burst (GRB 170817A) with a time delay of ~1.7 s with respect to the merger time. From the gravitational-wave signal, the source was initially localized to a sky region of 31 deg2 at a luminosity distance of 40 8 8-+ Mpc and with component masses consistent with neutron stars. The component masses were later measured to be in the range 0.86 to 2.26 M. An extensive observing campaign was launched across the electromagnetic spectrum leading to the discovery of a bright optical transient (SSS17a, now with the IAU identification of AT 2017gfo) in NGC 4993 (at ~40 Mpc) less than 11 hours after the merger by the One-Meter, Two Hemisphere (1M2H) team using the 1 m Swope Telescope. The optical transient was independently detected by multiple teams within an hour. Subsequent observations targeted the object and its environment. Early ultraviolet observations revealed a blue transient that faded within 48 hours. Optical and infrared observations showed a redward evolution over ~10 days. Following early non-detections, X-ray and radio emission were discovered at the transient's position ~9 and ~16 days, respectively, after the merger. Both the X-ray and radio emission likely arise from a physical process that is distinct from the one that generates the UV/optical/near-infrared emission. No ultra-high-energy gamma-rays and no neutrino candidates consistent with the source were found in follow-up searches. These observations support the hypothesis that GW170817 was produced by the merger of two neutron stars in NGC4993 followed by a short gamma-ray burst (GRB 170817A) and a kilonova/macronova powered by the radioactive decay of r-process nuclei synthesized in the ejecta.

KW - Gravitational waves

KW - Stars: neutron

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85037171677&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85037171677&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3847/2041-8213/aa91c9

DO - 10.3847/2041-8213/aa91c9

M3 - Article

VL - 848

JO - Astrophysical Journal Letters

JF - Astrophysical Journal Letters

SN - 2041-8205

IS - 2

M1 - L12

ER -

LIGO Scientific Collaboration and Virgo Collaboration, SKA South Africa/MeerKAT, Fermi GBM, IceCube Collaboration, AstroSat Cadmium Zinc Telluride Imager Team, IPN Collaboration et al. Multi-messenger observations of a binary neutron star merger. Astrophysical Journal Letters. 2017 Jan 1;848(2). L12. https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/aa91c9