Multilingual translation of the functional assessment of cancer therapy (FACT) quality of life measurement system

A. E. Bonomi*, D. F. Cella, E. A. Hahn, K. Bjordal, B. Sperner-Unterweger, L. Gangeri, B. Bergman, J. Willems-Groot, P. Hanquet, R. Zittoun

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

278 Scopus citations


There is need for multilingual cross-culturally valid quality of life (QOL) instrumentation to assess the QOL endpoint in international oncology clinical trials. We therefore initiated a multilingual translation of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT) Quality of Life Measurement System (Version 3) into the following languages: Dutch, French, German, Italian, Norwegian and Swedish. Prior to this project, the FACT Measurement System was available in English, Spanish and Canadian French. The FACT is a self-report instrument which measures multidimensional QOL. The FACT (Version 3) evaluation system uses a 29-49 item compilation of a generic core (29 Likert-type items) and numerous subscales (9-20 items each) which reflect symptoms associated with different diseases, symptom complexes and treatments. The FACT-G (general version) and eight of 18 available cancer-related subscales were translated using an iterative forward-backward translation sequence. After subsequent review by 21 bilingual health professionals, all near final language versions underwent Pretesting with a total of 95 patients in the native countries. Available results indicate good overall comprehensibility among native language-speakers. Equivalent foreign language versions of the FACT will permit QOL evaluation of people from diverse cultural backgrounds.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)309-320
Number of pages12
JournalQuality of Life Research
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jul 22 1996


  • Cross-cultural methodology
  • Quality of life assessment
  • Translation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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