Multimodal Sensing with a Three-Dimensional Piezoresistive Structure

Sang Min Won, Heling Wang, Bong Hoon Kim, Kunhyuck Lee, Hokyung Jang, Kyeongha Kwon, Mengdi Han, Kaitlyn E. Crawford, Haibo Li, Yechan Lee, Xuebo Yuan, Sung Bong Kim, Yong Suk Oh, Woo Jin Jang, Jong Yoon Lee, Seungyong Han, Jeonghyun Kim, Xueju Wang, Zhaoqian Xie, Yihui ZhangYonggang Huang, John A. Rogers*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

134 Scopus citations


Sensors that reproduce the complex characteristics of cutaneous receptors in the skin have important potential in the context of artificial systems for controlled interactions with the physical environment. Multimodal responses with high sensitivity and wide dynamic range are essential for many such applications. This report introduces a simple, three-dimensional type of microelectromechanical sensor that incorporates monocrystalline silicon nanomembranes as piezoresistive elements in a configuration that enables separate, simultaneous measurements of multiple mechanical stimuli, such as normal force, shear force, and bending, along with temperature. The technology provides high sensitivity measurements with millisecond response times, as supported by quantitative simulations. The fabrication and assembly processes allow scalable production of interconnected arrays of such devices with capabilities in spatiotemporal mapping. Integration with wireless data recording and transmission electronics allows operation with standard consumer devices.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)10972-10979
Number of pages8
JournalACS nano
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 22 2019


  • electromechanical sensor
  • electronic skin
  • silicon nanomembrane
  • tactile sensor
  • three-dimensional

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Engineering
  • General Materials Science
  • General Physics and Astronomy


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