Multiple-outcome criteria in schizophrenia: an overview of outcome with clozapine

HY Y. Meltzer*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

35 Scopus citations


The outcome of treatment in schizophrenia is best considered as a multidimensional construct. This report lists thirteen categories of outcome measures that have been studied in schizophrenia research, among the most important of which are psychopathology, cognitive function, interpersonal social function, quality of life, extrapyramidal function, the suicide tendeccy and the need for hospitalisation. Clozapine is effective in achieving improved outcome in all these measures in a high percentage of neuroleptic-resistant patients. Ninety-two of 180 (51.1%) clozapine-treated neuroleptic-resistant patients achieved a decrease of 20% in Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale total scores at six weeks using the 0-6 scaling system. Cognitive function contributes importantly to overall function for schizophrenia. Clozapine has been shown to improve some types of cognition in schizophrenia, especially semantic memory and some tests of executive function. Clozapine has also been shown to decrease the incidence of suicide and hospitalisation. The task of deciding which therapies to use in schizophrenia should encompass the spectrum of benefits of each therapy, their risks and costs, in relation to all alternatives.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)19s-25s
JournalEuropean Psychiatry
Issue numberSUPPL. 1
StatePublished - 1995


  • clozapine
  • neuroleptic
  • outcome
  • quality of life
  • schizophrenia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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