Multiple sclerosis: BAFF and CXCL13 in cerebrospinal fluid

Samia Ragheb*, Yanfeng Li, Kirk Simon, Stephen Vanhaerents, Daniela Galimberti, Milena De Riz, Chiara Fenoglio, Elio Scarpini, Robert Lisak

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

87 Scopus citations


Background: There is increasing evidence of B-cell involvement in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). B-cell activating factor (BAFF) has an essential role in B-cell homeostasis. The chemokine CXCL13 has an important role in the formation and maintenance of B-cell follicles.Objective: To measure BAFF and CXCL13 levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with MS compared to patients with other neurological diseases.Methods: Cytokine/chemokine levels were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Results: In MS patients, BAFF levels were highest in patients with secondary progressive disease, and were higher during relapse in patients with relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive disease. CXCL13 levels were also higher during relapse. There was a positive correlation between CXCL13 and the IgG index, and an inverse correlation between BAFF and the IgG index. The implications of this finding are discussed.Conclusion: During relapse, we found various positive correlations between BAFF, CXCL13 and the cytokines IL-6 and IL-10. These findings show that molecules that are essential for B-cell recruitment, survival, maturation and function may be working in concert to affect B-cell homeostasis in MS and contribute to the pathophysiology of the disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)819-829
Number of pages11
JournalMultiple Sclerosis Journal
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2011


  • BAFF
  • CXCL13
  • IgG index
  • cerebrospinal fluid
  • multiple sclerosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology


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