Myotomy technique and esophageal contractility impact blown-out myotomy formation in achalasia: an in silico investigation

Sourav Halder, Shashank Acharya, Wenjun Kou, Ryan A.J. Campagna, Joseph R. Triggs, Dustin A. Carlson, Abdul Aziz Aadam, Eric S. Hungness, Peter J. Kahrilas, John E. Pandolfino, Neelesh A. Patankar*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

We used in silico models to investigate the impact of the dimensions of myotomy, contraction pattern, the tone of the esophagogastric junction (EGJ), and musculature at the myotomy site on esophageal wall stresses potentially leading to the formation of a blown-out myotomy (BOM). We performed three sets of simulations with an in silico esophagus model, wherein the myotomy-influenced region was modeled as an elliptical section devoid of muscle fibers. These sets investigated the effects of the dimensions of myotomy, differing esophageal contraction types, and differing esophagogastric junction (EGJ) tone and wall stiffness at the myotomy affected region on esophageal wall stresses potentially leading to BOM. Longer myotomy was found to be accompanied by a higher bolus volume accumulated at the myotomy site. With respect to esophageal contractions, deformation at the myotomy site was greatest with propagated peristalsis, followed by combined peristalsis and spasm, and pan-esophageal pressurization. Stronger EGJ tone with respect to the wall stiffness at the myotomy site was found to aid in increasing deformation at the myotomy site. In addition, we found that an esophagus with a shorter myotomy performed better at emptying the bolus than that with a longer myotomy. Shorter myotomies decrease the chance of BOM formation. Propagated peristalsis with EGJ outflow obstruction has the highest chance of BOM formation. We also found that abnormal residual EGJ tone may be a co-factor in the development of BOM, whereas remnant muscle fibers at myotomy site reduce the risk of BOM formation. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Blown-out myotomy (BOM) is a complication observed after myotomy, which is performed to treat achalasia. In silico simulations were performed to identify the factors leading to BOM formation. We found that a short myotomy that is not transmural and has some structural architecture intact reduces the risk of BOM formation. In addition, we found that high esophagogastric junction tone due to fundoplication is found to increase the risk of BOM formation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)G500-G512
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Volume322
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2022

Keywords

  • Heller myotomy
  • achalasia
  • diverticulum
  • dysphagia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Hepatology
  • Gastroenterology
  • Physiology (medical)

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