We describe a collective-state atomic interferometer (COSAIN) with the signal fringe as a function of phase difference or rotation narrowed by N compared to a conventional interferometer, N being the number of atoms, without entanglement. This effect arises from the interferences among collective states, and is a manifestation of interference at a Compton frequency of 10×1030 Hz, or a de Broglie wavelength of 4.5 femtometer, for N=106 and v=1 m/s. The population of the collective state of interest is detected by a null measurement scheme, in which an event corresponding to detection of zero photons corresponds to the system being in that particular collective state. The signal is detected by collecting fluorescence through stimulated Raman scattering of Stokes photons, which are emitted predominantly against the direction of the probe beam, for a high enough resonant optical density. The sensitivity of the ideal COSAIN is found to be given by the standard quantum limit. However, when detection efficiency and collection efficiency are taken into account, the detection scheme of the COSAIN increases the quantum efficiency of detection significantly in comparison to a typical conventional Raman atomic interferometer employing fluorescence detection, yielding a net improvement in stability by as much as a factor of 10. We discuss how the inhomogeneities arising from the nonuniformity in experimental parameters affect the COSAIN signal. We also describe an alternate experimental scheme to enhance resonant optical density in a COSAIN by using cross-linearly polarized counterpropagating Raman beams.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Journal||Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics|
|State||Published - Dec 7 2015|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics