Studies have successfully elucidated the mechanism of action of several effector domains that comprise the MARTX toxins of Vibrio vulnificus. However, the biochemical linkage between the cysteine proteolytic activity of Makes Caterpillars Floppy-like (MCF) effector and its cellular effects remains unknown. In this study, we identify the host cell factors that activate in vivo and in vitro MCF autoprocessing as ADP-Ribosylation Factor 1 (ARF1) and ADP-ribosylation Factor 3 (ARF3). Autoprocessing activity is enhanced when ARF1 is in its active (GTP-bound) form compared to the inactive (GDP-bound) form. Subsequent to auto-cleavage, MCF is acetylated on its exposed N-terminal glycine residue. Acetylation apparently does not dictate subcellular localization, as MCF is found localized throughout the cell. However, the cleaved form of MCF gains the ability to bind to the specialized lipid phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate enriched in Golgi and other membranes necessary for endocytic trafficking, suggesting a fraction of MCF may be subcellular localized. Traditional thin-section electron microscopy, high-resolution cryoAPEX localization, and fluorescent microscopy show that MCF causes Golgi dispersal resulting in extensive vesiculation. In addition, host mitochondria are disrupted and fragmented. Surprisingly, ARF1 is not itself processed or post-translationally modified by MCF. Further, only catalytically inactive MCF stably associates with ARF1, thus serving as a substrate trap. Our data indicate that ARF1 is a cross-kingdom activator of MCF, but reveal that MCF mediates cytotoxicity likely by directly targeting another yet to be identified protein. This study begins to elucidate the biochemical activity of this important domain and gives insight into how it may promote disease progression.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)
- Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)