Navigating the White Dot Syndromes with Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and OCT Angiography (OCT-A)

Marta Pradas, M. Pilar Rodriguez-Merchante, Nuria Estébanez, David Sarraf, K. Bailey Freund, Amani Fawzi, Francesco Pichi, Ester Carreño*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Introduction: White dot syndromes are a heterogeneous group of diseases that affect different layers in the retina and choroid. Multimodal imaging is fundamental in the diagnosis, but also can be crucial in unveiling the pathogenesis of these entities. Material and Methods: Literature review. Results: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides depth-resolved, histological grade images of the vitreous, retina, and choroid. This technology is very useful to localize the primary nature and level of pathology of the various white dot syndromes. En face OCT can provide additional information regarding the interrelationship of lesion types. Vascular involvement at the level of the retina, choriocapillaris or choroid can be assessed by en face OCT angiography (OCT-A) and is not limited by masking, leakage or staining as can occur with conventional angiography (fluorescein or indocyanine green angiography) which requires dye injection. Conclusion: OCT and OCTA are fundamental in the diagnosis and follow-up of white dots syndromes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)664-674
Number of pages11
JournalOcular Immunology and Inflammation
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2022


  • OCT
  • OCTA
  • Uveitis
  • posterior uveitis
  • white dot syndromes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Ophthalmology


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