Objective: There are scarce data about the prevalence and mortality of necrotizing enterocolitis in neonates with congenital heart disease. The purpose of this study is to provide a multi-institutional description and comparison of the overall prevalence and mortality of necrotizing enterocolitis in neonates with congenital heart disease. Design: Retrospective multi-institutional study. Setting: The Pediatric Health Information System database. Patients: Neonates with congenital heart disease between 2004 and 2014. Interventions: None. Measurements and Main Results: The primary study measure is the prevalence of necrotizing enterocolitis. Secondary measures include in-hospital mortality, hospital charges, ICU length of stay, hospital length of stay, and 30-day readmission. The prevalence of necrotizing enterocolitis was 3.7% (1,448/38,770) and varied significantly among different congenital heart disease diagnoses. The lowest prevalence of necrotizing enterocolitis was in transposition of the great arteries (n = 104, 2.1%). Compared with transposition of the great arteries, necrotizing enterocolitis occurred more frequently in neonates with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (odds ratio, 2.7; 95% CI, 2.1-3.3), truncus arteriosus (odds ratio, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.9-3.5), common ventricle (odds ratio, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.5-2.8), and aortic arch obstruction (odds ratio, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1-1.7). Prematurity is a significant risk factor for necrotizing enterocolitis and for mortality in neonates with necrotizing enterocolitis, conferring varying risk by cardiac diagnosis. Unadjusted mortality associated with necrotizing enterocolitis was 24.4% (vs 11.8% in neonates without necrotizing enterocolitis; p < 0.001), and necrotizing enterocolitis increased the adjusted mortality in neonates with transposition of the great arteries (odds ratio, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.5-4.4), aortic arch obstruction (odds ratio, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.3-2.6), and tetralogy of Fallot (odds ratio, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1-2.4). Necrotizing enterocolitis was associated with increased hospital charges (p < 0.0001), ICU length of stay (p = 0.001), and length of stay (p = 0.001). Conclusions: The prevalence of necrotizing enterocolitis among neonates with congenital heart disease is 3.7% and is associated with increased in-hospital mortality, length of stay, and hospital charges. The prevalence and associated mortality of necrotizing enterocolitis in congenital heart disease vary among different heart defects.
- Congenital heart disease
- Necrotizing enterocolitis
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine