Negotiation behavior when cultures collide: The United States and Japan

Wendi L. Adair*, Tetsushi Okumura, Jeanne M. Brett

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

236 Scopus citations


This study compared the negotiation behaviors of Japanese and U.S. managers in intra- and intercultural settings. Transcripts from an integrative bargaining task were coded and analyzed with ogistic and linear regression. U.S. negotiators exchanged information directly and avoided influence when negotiating intra- and interculturally. Japanese negotiators exchanged information indirectly and used influence when negotiating intraculturally but adapted their behaviors when negotiating interculturally. Culturally normative negotiation behaviors partially account for the lower joint gains generated by intercultural, relative to intracultural, dyads. The behavioral data inform motivational and skill-based explanations for elusive joint gains when cultures clash.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)371-385
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Applied Psychology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 2001
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Psychology


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