Neurochecks as a Biomarker of the Temporal Profile and Clinical Impact of Neurologic Changes after Intracerebral Hemorrhage

Matthew B. Maas*, Michael D. Berman, James C. Guth, Eric M. Liotta, Shyam Prabhakaran, Andrew M. Naidech

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


Background We sought to determine whether a quantitative neurocheck biomarker could characterize the temporal pattern of early neurologic changes after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and the impact of those changes on long-term functional outcomes. Methods We enrolled cases of spontaneous ICH in a prospective observational study. Patients underwent a baseline Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) assessment, then hourly neurochecks using the GCS in a neuroscience intensive care unit. We identified a period of heightened neurologic instability by analyzing the average hourly rate of GCS change over 5 days from symptom onset. We used a multivariate regression model to test whether those early GCS score changes were independently associated with 3-month outcome measured by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Results We studied 13,025 hours of monitoring from 132 cases. The average rate of neurologic change declined from 1.0 GCS points per hour initially to a stable baseline of.1 GCS points per hour beyond 12 hours from symptom onset (P <.05 for intervals before 12 hours). Change in GCS score within the initial 12 hours was an independent predictor of mRS at 3 months (odds ratio,.81 [95% confidence interval,.66-.99], P =.043) after adjustment for age, hematoma volume, hematoma location, initial GCS, and intraventricular hemorrhage. Conclusions Neurochecks are effective at detecting clinically important neurologic changes in the intensive care unit setting that are relevant to patients' long-term outcomes. The initial 12 hours is a period of frequent and prognostically important neurologic changes in patients with ICH.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2026-2031
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 1 2015


  • Intracerebral hemorrhage
  • neurochecks
  • neurologic deterioration
  • neurologic worsening
  • neuromonitoring
  • outcomes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Rehabilitation
  • Surgery


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