This chapter reviews the clinical aspects of neuropsychiatric lupus (NPSLE), the possible mechanisms of injury, and various treatment options available. Lupus is the archetypical autoimmune disease. The pathophysiologic mechanisms that result in lupus and specific organ injury appear to be multifactorial and seem to require both genetic risk and environmental stimulation. Pediatric-onset lupus appears at a time during brain maturation as well as physical, psychological, and emotional changes. The impact of lupus and, in particular, neuropsychiatric disease is dependent on the disease manifestation, disease severity, family characteristics and environment, and response to treatment. The diagnosis of overt neurologic disease in the setting of lupus is straightforward. There are specific diagnostic evaluations that are required to consider an appropriate differential diagnosis. The cornerstone to evaluation is the history and physical examination, which should direct laboratory and imaging evaluations, resulting in a diagnosis. The evaluation of less objective disease manifestations becomes muddled. The patient may present with an acute confusional state, psychosis, altered mood, or other cognitive challenge. The attribution of symptoms to lupus is a diagnosis of exclusion, and all other possibilities must be considered.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Title of host publication||Neuroinflammation|
|Number of pages||15|
|State||Published - Dec 1 2011|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)