Neurosurgical Management of Spastic Conditions of the Upper Extremity

Karl Balsara, Andrew Jea, Jeffrey S. Raskin*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Spasticity is a hypertonic segmental reflex pathway caused by a central nervous system injury. Spasticity of the upper extremity causes loss of function, joint contracture, pain, and poor cosmesis. Treatment aims to reduce or change the pathophysiology underlying the hyperactive reflex from dorsal sensory rootlets through the intrinsic machinery of the spinal cord to the neuromuscular junction. There are many treatments for upper extremity spasticity including oral medication, physiotherapy, intrathecal baclofen, and lesional or neuromodulatory surgical approaches. Goals of treatment must always be clearly defined, but neurosurgical management is most effective when paired with multidisciplinary therapies and caregiver participation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)547-554
Number of pages8
JournalHand Clinics
Issue number4
StatePublished - Nov 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • Baclofen therapy
  • Movement disorder
  • Neuromodulation
  • Spasticity
  • Upper extremity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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