The recruitment of specific leukocyte subtypes to the site of tissue injury is the cornerstone of inflammation and disease progression. This process has become an intense area of research because it presents several possible steps against which disease-specific therapies could be targeted. Leukocytes are recruited out of the blood stream by a series of events that include their capture, rolling, activation, and migration along the endothelium. In the last step, the leukocytes squeeze between adjacent endothelial cells to gain access to the inflamed tissue through a process referred to as transendothelial migration (TEM). Although many of the molecules, such as PECAM and CD99, that regulate these sequential steps have been identified, much less is understood regarding how they work together to coordinate the complex intercellular communications and dramatic shape changes that take place between the endothelial cells and leukocytes. Several of the endothelial cell proteins that function in TEM are localized to the lateral border recycling compartment (LBRC), an interconnected reticulum of membrane that recycles selectively to the endothelial borders. The recruitment of the LBRC to surround the migrating leukocyte is required for efficient TEM. This review will focus on the proteins and mechanisms that mediate TEM and specifically how the LBRC functions in the context of these molecular interactions and membrane movements.
- Lateral border recycling compartment
- Transendothelial migration
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy