New and emerging techniques for imaging surfaces

Ellen D. Williams*, Laurence D. Marks

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


The development of techniques for real-time in situ imaging of surfaces and for spatially resolved spectroscopic imaging of surfaces is reviewed. The capabilities of field-ion microscopy, in situ transmission electron microscopy, low-energy electron microscopy, point projection microscopy, in situ scanning electron microscopy, near-field scanning optical microscopy, photoemission electron microscopy, plane-view transmission electron microscopy, reflection electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with polarization analysis, scanning microcathodoluminescence, and scanning tunneling microscopy are summarized and contrasted.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)275-303
Number of pages29
JournalCritical Reviews in Surface Chemistry
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 1 1995

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Colloid and Surface Chemistry


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