New delivery systems in pain management

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


The advanced technology seen in the computer industry, manufacturing, and selected areas of medicine is currently being applied to pain control. A climate of greater awareness of the pain experience and increased knowledge of the pathophysiology of pain has produced an environment conducive to pain research. The outcome of these combined factors has been the discovery of many new routes of analgesic administration and the development of various drug delivery systems. It is interesting that many of these new complex routes and high technology systems employ a very common drug - morphine sulfate. Morphine remains the standard by which other narcotic analgesics are measured. Although available in oral and parenteral forms for many years, the application of new technology to this agent has yielded a new form of this drug: prolonged-release tablets. This article will discuss this new form of morphine as well as the application of morphine and other agents to recently developed delivery systems.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)715-726
Number of pages12
JournalNursing Clinics of North America
Issue number3
StatePublished - Dec 1 1987

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Nursing


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