Mesoscopic simulations and electron microscopy of N-BAR domain-induced liposome remodeling are used to characterize the process of liposome tubulation and vesiculation. The overall process of membrane remodeling is found to involve complex couplings among the N-BAR protein density, the degree of N-BAR oligomerization, and the membrane density. A comparison of complex remodeled liposome structures from mesoscopic simulations with those measured by electron microscopy experiments suggests that the process of membrane remodeling can be described via an appropriate mesoscopic free energy framework. Liposome remodeling more representative of F-BAR domains is also presented within the mesoscopic simulation framework.
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