A review of three new methods for generating X-ray standing waves is given, namely Bragg diffraction from layered synthetic microstructures, specular reflection from mirror surfaces, and Bragg diffraction in the backscattering geometry. Unlike conventional X-ray standing wave measurements which use dynamical Bragg diffraction from perfect single crystals (such as silicon and germanium), these new methods provide angular reflection widths measured in milliradians instead of microradians and are therefore applicable to a more general class of solid substrates. Emphasis will be given to the application of these new methods for the study of surface and interface structures.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Nuclear and High Energy Physics