Newer models of cardiac tissue

Zexu Lin, Sharon A. George*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Cardiac function is a summation of multiple facets of physiology including electrophysiology, mechanics, fluid dynamics, and cardiac structure. Each of these parameters can modulate cardiac physiology and pathophysiology and are thus crucial components in understanding this complex organ. Thus, the study of cardiac physiology requires multiscale approaches and current models of cardiac tissue used in research can be divided into in vivo, in vitro, and in silico models. Several animal models have been used in in vivo studies including mice, rats, guinea pigs, rabbits, sheep, pigs, and dogs. While these in vivo models can give a complete understanding of systemic effects of diseases and drugs on cardiac physiology, significant species-dependent differences have impeded the progress of this knowledge to benefit human health. To address this concern, in vitro human cardiac models that mimic cardiac physiology including Langendorff-perfused whole heart and wedge preparations, cardiac organotypic slices, as well as two- and three-dimensional cell cultures with multiple cardiac cell types were developed. In vivo conditions such as electrical and mechanical stimulation and structural anisotropy have also been incorporated in these cell culture models. Finally, mechanistic in silico models and their applications in cardiac pathophysiology and drug response predictions are also discussed in this chapter.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationCardiac Bioelectric Therapy
Subtitle of host publicationMechanisms and Practical Implications
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Number of pages8
ISBN (Electronic)9783030633554
ISBN (Print)9783030633547
StatePublished - Jan 28 2021


  • 2D cultures
  • 3D cultures
  • Ex vivo
  • Heart-on-a-chip
  • IPSC
  • In silico
  • In vivo
  • Langendorff
  • Myocytes
  • Organotypic slices
  • Spheroids
  • Wedges

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine
  • General Health Professions


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