Nitric oxide differentially affects proteasome activator 28 after arterial injury in type 1 and type 2 diabetic rats

Nick D. Tsihlis, Monica P. Rodriguez, Qun Jiang, Amanda Schwartz, Megan E. Flynn, Janet M. Vercammen, Melina R. Kibbe*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Background Diabetic patients display aggressive restenosis after vascular interventions, likely because of proproliferative influences of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. We have shown that nitric oxide (NO) inhibits neointimal hyperplasia in type 2, but not in type 1, diabetic rats. Here, we examined proteasome activator 28 (PA28) after arterial injury in different diabetic environments, with or without NO. We hypothesize that NO differentially affects PA28 levels based on metabolic environment. Materials and methods Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) lysates from male, nondiabetic Lean Zucker (LZ) and Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats were assayed for 26S proteasome activity with or without PA28 and S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine. LZ and ZDF VSMCs were treated with (Z)-1-[N-(2-aminoethyl)-N-(2-ammonioethyl)amino]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate for 24 h. Balloon-injured carotid arteries from LZ, streptozotocin-injected LZ (STZ, type 1), and ZDF (type 2) rats treated with disodium 1-[2-(carboxylato)pyrrolidin-1-iyl]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate were harvested at 3 or 14 d. PA28α was assessed by Western blotting and immunofluorescent staining. Results S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine reversed PA28-stimulated increases in 26S proteasome activity in LZ and ZDF VSMCs. Increased (Z)-1-[N-(2-aminoethyl)-N-(2-ammonioethyl)amino]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate lowered PA28α in LZ VSMCs but increased PA28α in ZDF VSMCs. At 3 d after injury, disodium 1-[2-(carboxylato)pyrrolidin-1-iyl]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate potentiated injury-induced PA28α decreases in LZ, STZ, and ZDF rats, suggesting VSMCs, depleted at this early time point, are major sources of PA28α. At 14 d after injury, total PA28α staining returned to baseline. However, although intimal and medial PA28α staining increased in injured STZ rats, adventitial PA28α staining increased in injured ZDF rats. Conclusions PA28 dysregulation may explain the differential ability of NO to inhibit neointimal hyperplasia in type 1 versus type 2 diabetes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)413-421
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Surgical Research
Issue number2
StatePublished - May 15 2016


  • Diabetes
  • Neointimal hyperplasia
  • Nitric oxide
  • Proteasome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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