Non-invasive cardiac output trending during exercise recovery on a bathroom-scale-based ballistocardiograph

O. T. Inan, M. Etemadi, A. Paloma, L. Giovangrandi, G. T A Kovacs

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

75 Scopus citations


Cardiac ejection of blood into the aorta generates a reaction force on the body that can be measured externally via the ballistocardiogram (BCG). In this study, a commercial bathroom scale was modified to measure the BCGs of nine healthy subjects recovering from treadmill exercise. During the recovery, Doppler echocardiogram signals were obtained simultaneously from the left ventricular outflow tract of the heart. The percentage changes in root-mean-square (RMS) power of the BCG were strongly correlated with the percentage changes in cardiac output measured by Doppler echocardiography (R2 = 0.85, n = 275 data points). The correlation coefficients for individually analyzed data ranged from 0.79 to 0.96. Using Bland-Altman methods for assessing agreement, the mean bias was found to be -0.5% (24%) in estimating the percentage changes in cardiac output. In contrast to other non-invasive methods for trending cardiac output, the unobtrusive procedure presented here uses inexpensive equipment and could be performed without the aid of a medical professional.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)261-274
Number of pages14
JournalPhysiological Measurement
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2009


  • Ballistocardiogram
  • Cardiac output
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Exercise Physiology
  • Hemodynamics
  • Non-invasive monitoring

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Physiology
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Physiology (medical)


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