Nonestrogen-based hormonal therapies for Alzheimer's disease

Kathryn Bryan, Hyoung Gon Lee, George Perry, Rudy J. Castellani, Mark A. Smith, Gemma Casadesus*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Alzheimer's disease (AD) is becoming increasingly more prevalent worldwide and is a costly, devastating disease. The fact that females are more likely to be diagnosed with AD than men has contributed to the large amount of research and literature on estrogen's ability to rescue cognitive decline in aging females. However, recent results from the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS) and the Research into Memory, Brain Function and Estrogen Replacement (REMEMBER) study, in which estrogen-replacement therapy is shown not to be beneficial to cognition in postmenopausal women, especially in women of more advanced ages, have opened the study of hormones and hormone-based therapies beyond that of sex steroids. As such, recent findings, and the focus of this review, indicate that gonadotropins such as luteinizing hormone have a role on cognitive function and AD. It is likely that the interplay of age, and the timing of estrogen and these other less studied hormones will allow us to gain a better understanding of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis regulation after menopause and how it relates to AD, and will hopefully lead to new avenues of treatment for AD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)399-407
Number of pages9
JournalFuture Neurology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 2008


  • Alzheimer's disease
  • Cognition
  • Estrogen
  • HPG-axis
  • Hormone-replacement therapy
  • Leuprolide acetate
  • Luteinizing hormone
  • Menopause

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology


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