Context. -Proposed noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTPs), formerly noninvasive encapsulated papillary carcinoma, follicular variant (PTC-FV), is an indolent tumor with follicular growth and frequent RAS mutations. Objective.-To detect histologic and molecular differences separating NIFTP from follicular adenomas (FAs) and invasive carcinomas, particularly papillary carcinomas with extensive follicular growth (PTC-EFGs) and invasive encapsulated PTC-FV (IE-PTC-FV). Design.-Sixty-one tumors were reviewed histologically and reclassified into 32 NIFTPs (52%), 4 IE-PTC-FVs (7%), 14 PTC-EFGs (23%), and 11 FAs (18%). Next-generation sequencing for mutations in 50 genes was performed. Clinical outcomes were recorded. Results.-The NIFTPs and FAs were well circumscribed and unencapsulated. The FAs had bland nuclei, whereas the NIFTPs showed at least 2 of 3 (67%; sufficient) nuclear features (enlargement, irregular contours, chromatin clearing). The IE-PTC-FVs had follicular growth, sufficient nuclear features, and extensive capsular invasion. The PTCEFGs had a median of 5% papillae with intrathyroidal invasion (broad-based, sclerotic, or small follicle growth patterns); intranuclear pseudoinclusions were present only in PTC-EFGs (9 of 14; 64%). Mutations included RAS in 20 of the 32 NIFTPs (62%), 4 of the 11 FAs (36%), and 3 of the 4 IE-PTC-FVs (75%); BRAF K601E in 1 NIFTP (3%); BRAF V600E in 5 PTC-EFGs (36%). No NIFTPs or FAs recurred or metastasized. All 4 IE-PTC-FVs (100%) had hematogenous metastasis. Two PTC-EFGs (14%) had lymphatic metastasis. Conclusions.-The morphologic similarity and RAS mutations in FAs, NIFTPs, and IE-PTC-FVs supports the genetic similarity of those follicular neoplasms in contrast to the unique presence of BRAF V600E mutations in PTCEFGs. Using strict diagnostic criteria supported by molecular testing, tumors with extensive follicular growth can be classified into follicular type or RAS-like (FA, NIFTP, IEPTC- FV) versus papillary type or BRAF V600E-like (PTCEFG).
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine
- Medical Laboratory Technology