Nonlocal integral formulations of plasticity and damage: Survey of progress

Zdeněk P. Bažant*, Milan Jirásek

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1118 Scopus citations


Modeling of the evolution of distributed damage such as microcracking, void formation, and softening frictional slip necessitates strain-softening constitutive models. The nonlocal continuum concept has emerged as an effective means for regularizing the boundary value problems with strain softening, capturing the size effects and avoiding spurious localization that gives rise to pathological mesh sensitivity in numerical computations. A great variety of nonlocal models have appeared during the last two decades. This paper reviews the progress in the nonlocal models of integral type, and discusses their physical justifications, advantages, and numerical applications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1119-1149
Number of pages31
JournalJournal of Engineering Mechanics
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2002


  • Cracking
  • Damage
  • Localization
  • Plasticity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'Nonlocal integral formulations of plasticity and damage: Survey of progress'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this