OBJECTIVE: X-linked hyper-immunoglobulin M (X-HIM) syndrome is a rare genetic immunodeficiency syndrome caused by mutations in the gene encoding CD40 ligand (CD40L, CD154). Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) offers the prospect of immune reconstitution in X-HIM syndrome. Standard HSCT using high-dose chemoradiotherapy can be followed by serious hepatic problems, including veno-occlusive disease, graft-versus-host disease, and/or drug-induced hepatotoxicity. In patients whose liver function is compromised before HSCT, such as in X-HIM syndrome caused by cholangiopathy and hepatitis related to opportunistic infections, there is a higher likelihood of hepatotoxicity. We explored nonmyeloablative HSCT in 2 patients with X-HIM syndrome. Nonmyeloablative HSCT without liver transplant for X-HIM syndrome, to our knowledge, has not been described previously. METHODS: Two children with X-HIM syndrome and persistent infections had documented cholangiopathy on liver biopsy. Both children underwent nonmyeloablative HSCT from HLA-matched siblings with fludarabine, busulfan, and anti-thymocyte globulin as their preparative regimen. Graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis consisted of cyclosporine. RESULTS: Both children are >2 years after their HSCT. One remains a mixed chimera, and the other shows 100% donor chimerism. Both children are now free of infections and are no longer dependent on intravenous gammaglobulin. Both show response to immunizations. Both have had resolution of their cholangiopathy. CONCLUSIONS: Nonmyeloablative HSCT from HLA-matched siblings can offer immune reconstitution without hepatotoxicity in patients with X-HIM syndrome and preexisting cholangiopathy. Even with stable mixed chimerism after allogeneic HSCT, patients may be able to enjoy a normal phenotype. Nonmyeloablative HSCT warrants additional study in X-HIM syndrome.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health