Normal reference values of left ventricular strain using three-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography: Results from amulticentre study

Sebastiaan A. Kleijn*, Natesa G. Pandian, James D. Thomas, Leopoldo Perez De Isla, Otto Kamp, Michel Zuber, Petros Nihoyannopoulos, Tamas Forster, Hans Joachim Nesser, Annette Geibel, Willem Gorissen, Jose L. Zamorano

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

82 Scopus citations


Aims Three-dimensional (3D) speckle tracking echocardiography (3DSTE) has been shown to be an accurate and reliable clinical tool for the evaluation of global and regional left ventricular (LV) function through strain analysis, but the absence of normal values has precluded its widespread use in clinical practice. The aim of this prospective multicentre study was to establish normal reference values of LV strain parameters using 3DSTE in a large healthy population. Methods and results A total of 303 healthy subjects (156 males [51%], between 18 and 82 years of age, ejection fraction [EF] 61±3%), stratified to provide approximately equal proportions of healthy subjects of 18-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60, and .60 years of age, underwent 3DSTE. Datawere analysed for LVvolumes, EF, mass, and global and regional circumferential, longitudinal, radial, and area strain. Significant but small differences between men and women were found for longitudinal and area strains, as well as between different age groups for all LV strain parameters. However, large differences in normal values were observed between different segments, walls, and levels of the LV for radial and longitudinal strains, whereas circumferential and area strains demonstrated generally consistent normal ranges across the LV. Conclusions Normal ranges of global and regional LV strain using 3DSTE have been established for clinical use. Differences in the magnitude of LV strain are present between men and women aswell as different age groups. Moreover, there are differences between different segments, walls, and levels as part of the functional non-uniformity of the normal LV that necessitates the use of segment-specific normal ranges for radial and longitudinal strains. Circumferential and area strains demonstrate the most consistent normal ranges overall.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)410-416
Number of pages7
JournalEuropean heart journal cardiovascular Imaging
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 1 2015


  • Echocardiography
  • Left ventricular function
  • Speckle tracking
  • Three-dimensional imaging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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