Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hemorrhagic shock (HS) are the leading causes of trauma-related deaths. These insults disrupt coagulation and endothelial systems. This study investigated whether previously reported differences in lesion size and brain swelling during normal saline (NS), colloids (Hextend [HEX]), and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) resuscitation are associated with differential effects on coagulation and endothelial systems. Methods We subjected 15 Yorkshire swine to TBI and HS (40% blood volume), and kept in HS for 2 hours before resuscitation with NS, HEX, or FFP. Markers of endothelial activation (E-selectin, Intercellular adhesion molecule [ICAM]-1), coagulation activation (prothrombin fragment 1 + 2), and natural anticoagulation (activated protein C [aPC]) were determined in serum and brain whole cell lysates. Results Serum levels of aPC were greater in the NS group (203 ± 30 pg/mL) compared with HEX (77 ± 28 pg/mL; P =.02) and FFP (110 ± 28 pg/mL; P =.09), as was PF 1 + 2 in the brain when compared with FFP (PF 1 + 2, 89 ± 46 vs 37 ± 14 ng/mL; P =.035). Brain E-selectin was greater in the NS group compared with FFP (3.36 ± 0.02 vs 3.31 ± 0.01 ng/mL; P =.029). Circulating ICAM-1 levels were increased in the NS group (151 ± 9 ng/mL) compared with the HEX (100 ± 9 ng/mL; P <.01) and FFP (108 ± 9 ng/mL; P =.01). Conclusion In this clinically realistic large animal model of TBI + HS, NS resuscitation was associated with an early activation of coagulation, natural anticoagulation, and endothelial systems, compared with HEX and FFP.
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