Normative clinical relationships between orientation and memory: Age as an important moderator variable

Jerry J. Sweet*, Yana Suchy, Brian Leahy, Carolyn Abramowitz, Cindy J. Nowinski

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

14 Scopus citations


The present study examined the relationship between memory and orientation to time, place, and personal and general information, as moderated by age, education, and simple attentional ability. A heterogeneous sample of 312 clinical referrals was divided into four groups, according to delayed memory functioning. Patients with globally good, globally poor, poor visual, and poor auditory memory were at differential risk of being disoriented, with the globally poor memory patients having the greatest risk. Overall, poorly oriented patients were older and less educated, with worse recall of digits backward. Discriminant Function Analysis selected visual and auditory memory and age as predictors of orientation. Normative tables stratified by age and memory performance are presented.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)495-508
Number of pages14
JournalClinical Neuropsychologist
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 1999


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Cite this