Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a dementia syndrome associated with several neuropathologic entities, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and all major forms of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). It is classified into subtypes defined by the nature of the language domain that is most impaired. The asymmetric neurodegeneration of the hemisphere dominant for language (usually left) is one consistent feature of all PPA variants. This feature offers unique opportunities for exploring mechanisms of selective vulnerability in neurodegenerative diseases and the neuroanatomy of language. This chapter reviews some of the current trends in PPA research as well as the challenges that remain to be addressed on the nosology, clinicopathologic correlations, and therapy of this syndrome.