#NotAllWhites: Liberal-Leaning White Americans Racially Disidentify and Increase Support for Racial Equity

J. Doris Dai*, Arianne E. Eason, Laura M. Brady, Stephanie A. Fryberg

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Donald Trump won the 2016 presidential election largely due to support from White Americans. This win created a new sociopolitical reality in which White Americans as a group became associated with Trump and his anti-egalitarianism. Four studies (N = 3,245) explored how liberal-leaning White Americans negotiate their racial identity to contend with group-image threat arising from the association between their racial ingroup and Trump. Trump-related group-image threat (i.e., White Americans’ support for Trump’s anti-egalitarianism or his continuation in office) led liberal-leaning White Americans to disidentify from their racial ingroup. In turn, racial disidentification predicted greater signaling of egalitarian beliefs (i.e., expressing intentions to advocate for racial equity and supporting policies designed to benefit racially minoritized groups) and behaviors (i.e., donating money to racial equity-focused organizations). These results suggest that the process of negotiating Trump-related group-image threat has implications for both White Americans’ racial identities and ongoing efforts to achieve racial equity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1612-1632
Number of pages21
JournalPersonality and Social Psychology Bulletin
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2021


  • Trump
  • White identity
  • egalitarian
  • group-image threat
  • racial disidentification

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology


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