The development of a clinically durable small-diameter vascular graft as well as permanently implantable biosensors and artificial organ systems that interface with blood, including the artificial heart, kidney, liver, and lung, remain limited by surface-induced thrombotic responses. Recent breakthroughs in materials science, along with a growing understanding of the molecular events that underlay thrombosis, has led to the design and clinical evaluation of a variety of biologically active coatings that inhibit components of the coagulation pathway and platelet responses by surface immobilization or controlled release of bioactive agents. This report reviews recent progress in generating synthetic thromboresistant surfaces that inhibit (1) protein and cell adsorption, (2) thrombin and fibrin formation, and (3) platelet activation and aggregation.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine