Nucleation kinetics of Cu6Sn5 by reaction of molten tin with a copper substrate

R. A. Gagliano*, G. Ghosh, M. E. Fine

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

73 Scopus citations


The nucleation kinetics of the η-phase (Cu6Sn5) intermetallic compound were investigated by hot dipping copper coupons in molten tin for 1 and 2 sec, at temperatures varying from 240°C to 300°C. In the scanning electron microscope (SEM), the Cu6Sn5 phase appears as small, rounded bumps of varying sizes, jutting out from the surface of the copper. The experimentally determined nucleation curves show the typical inverse C type behavior with a maximum nucleation rate occurring at an intermediate temperature. The role of surface finish on nucleation rate was also studied. Experimentally determined "effective nucleation rate" per unit area is presented and compared with theoretical predictions over the temperature range investigated. Relevant nucleation models and nucleation energetic parameters are also discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1195-1202
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Electronic Materials
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2002
Externally publishedYes


  • Copper substrate
  • CuSn
  • Nucleation kinetics
  • Tin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Materials Chemistry


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