Numerical modeling of pore size and distribution in foamed titanium

H. Shen, S. M. Oppenheimer, D. C. Dunand, L. C. Brinson*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

100 Scopus citations


To facilitate the design and development of porous metals, simulation of their mechanical behavior is essential. As an alternative to complex tomography procedures, a methodology has been developed to construct a simulated microstructure that retains the essential features of the experimental material. The target material is a moderate porosity titanium foam that is being developed as a bone implant material. The methodology applies stereology theory to a foaming process based on growth of pressurized pores. Three-dimensional (3D) pore size and pore distribution information is derived from 2D sections for a sample with low porosity, early in the foaming process. A 3D microstructure is developed based on the 3D location and size distribution of the pores by use of a computational procedure. Pores are allowed to grow and coalesce in a simple simulated foaming process to achieve microstructures of higher porosity. These data have been used as inputs to write scripts of I-DEAS to create 3D finite element models which are then examined for basic global and local mechanical properties.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)933-944
Number of pages12
JournalMechanics of Materials
Issue number8-10
StatePublished - Aug 2006


  • Distribution
  • Finite element
  • Microstructure
  • Pore size
  • Titanium foam

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Instrumentation
  • Mechanics of Materials


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