Objective assessment of a relative afferent pupillary defect by B-mode ultrasound

Felix A. Schmidt*, Florian Connolly, Matthew B. Maas, Ulrike Grittner, Lutz Harms, Alexander Brandt, Friedemann Paul, Stephan Schreiber, Klemens Ruprecht

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

Purpose To evaluate B-mode ultrasound as a novel method for objective and quantitative assessment of a relative afferent pupillary defect (RAPD) in a prospective case-control study. Methods Seventeen patients with unilateral optic neuropathy and a clinically detectable RAPD and 17 age and sex matched healthy controls were examined with B-mode ultrasound using an Esaote-Mylab25 system according to current guidelines for orbital insonation. The swinging flashlight test was performed during ultrasound assessment with a standardized light stimulus using a penlight. Results B-mode ultrasound RAPD examination was doable in approximately 5 minutes only and was well tolerated by all participants. Compared to the unaffected contralateral eyes, eyes with RAPD showed lower absolute constriction amplitude of the pupillary diameter (mean [SD] 0.8 [0.4] vs. 2.1 [0.4] mm; p = 0.009) and a longer pupillary constriction time after ipsilateral light stimulus (mean [SD] 1240 [180] vs. 710 [200] ms; p = 0.008). In eyes affected by RAPD, visual acuity correlated with the absolute constriction amplitude (r = 0.75, p = 0.001). Conclusions B-mode ultrasound enables fast, easy and objective quantification of a RAPD and can thus be applied in clinical practice to document a RAPD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere0202774
JournalPloS one
Volume13
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2018

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • General

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    Schmidt, F. A., Connolly, F., Maas, M. B., Grittner, U., Harms, L., Brandt, A., Paul, F., Schreiber, S., & Ruprecht, K. (2018). Objective assessment of a relative afferent pupillary defect by B-mode ultrasound. PloS one, 13(8), [e0202774]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0202774