Observation of negative refraction and focusing in two-dimensional photonic crystals

Ekrael Ozbay*, Man Bulu, Kaan Guven, Humeyra Caglayan, Koray Aydin

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


We experimentally and theoretically demonstrate the negative refraction and focusing of electromagnetic (EM) waves by twodimensional photonic crystal slabs at microwave frequencies. The negative refraction is observed both for transverse magnetic (TM) and transverse electric (TE) polarized incident EM waves. Gaussian beam shifting method is used to verify the negative refractive index. The Subwavelength imaging and flat lens behavior of photonic crystals are succesfully demonstrated. We have been able to overcome the diffraction limit and focus the EM waves to a spot size of 0.21λ. Metallodielectric photonic crystals are employed to increase the range of angle of incidence that results in negative refraction. Experimental results and theoretical calculations are in good agreement throughout the work.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)6064-6070
Number of pages7
JournalJapanese Journal of Applied Physics
Issue number8 A
StatePublished - Aug 4 2006


  • Band diagram
  • Equal frequency contours
  • Flat lens
  • Left-handed materials
  • Metamaterial
  • Negative refraction
  • Photonic band gap
  • Photonic crystals
  • Subwavelength imaging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering(all)
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)


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