Observation of negative refraction and negative phase velocity in true left-handed metamaterials

Ekmel Ozbay*, K. Aydin, K. Guven, I. Bulu

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review


We report a true left-handed (LH) behavior in a composite metamaterial consisting of periodically arranged split ring resonator (SRR) and wire structures. The magnetic resonance of the SRR structure is demonstrated by comparing the transmission spectra of SRRs with that of closed SRRs. We confirmed experimentally that the effective plasma frequency of the LH material composed of SRRs and wires is lower than the plasma frequency of the wires. A well-defined left-handed transmission band with a peak value of -1.2 dB (-0.3 dB/cm) is obtained. We also report the transmission characteristics of a 2D composite metamaterial (CMM) structure in free space. At the frequencies where left-handed transmission takes place, we experimentally confirmed that the CMM structure has effective negative refractive index. Phase shift between consecutive numbers of layers of CMM is measured and phase velocity is shown to be negative at the relevant frequency range. Refractive index values obtained from the refraction experiments and the phase measurements are in good agreement. The experimental results agree extremely well with the theoretical calculations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number37
Pages (from-to)240-247
Number of pages8
JournalProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
Volume5840 PART I
StatePublished - 2005
EventPhotonic Materials, Devices, and Applications - Seville, Spain
Duration: May 9 2005May 11 2005


  • Left-handed medium
  • Metamaterial
  • Negative phase velocity
  • Negative refraction
  • Split ring resonator

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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