Obstructive sleep apnea and other sleep-related syndromes

Teresa Paiva*, Hrayr Attarian

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

21 Scopus citations


Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a common disorder characterized by repetitive episodes of breathing cessation due to complete or partial collapse of the upper airway therefore affecting ventilation. It is quite common, with a prevalence of about 2-4%, has a strong genetic component, and creates a proinflammatory state with elevated TNFα and other cytokines. If untreated, OSA can lead to significant neurological problems that include stroke, cognitive decline, depression, headaches, peripheral neuropathy, and nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION).Treatment reverses some of these neurological problems. Treatment includes continuous positive airway pressure and its variants, oral appliances, weight loss, upper airway surgery, and rarely maxillofacial procedures. Other sleep breathing disorders such as hypoventilation, central sleep apnea, complex sleep apnea, and Cheyne-Stokes respiration are less common and are sometimes associated with neuromuscular disorders causing diaphragmatic paralysis, but can also be seen in opiate exposure and severe obesity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationHandbook of Clinical Neurology
PublisherElsevier B.V.
Number of pages21
StatePublished - 2014

Publication series

NameHandbook of Clinical Neurology
ISSN (Print)0072-9752


  • Central sleep apnea
  • Cognition
  • Comorbidities
  • Health risks
  • Hypoventilation syndromes
  • Obstructive sleep apnea

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology


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