Purpose: To describe the range of ocular manifestations in cutis marmorata telangectatica congenita (CMTC). Design: Multicenter, retrospective, nonconsecutive case series. Participants: Patients with a diagnosis of CMTC referred for ophthalmologic evaluation between January 1, 2015, and December 31, 2018. Methods: Evaluation of ocular findings at presentation, systemic manifestations suggestive of a diagnosis of CMTC, genetic testing, and visual outcomes after treatment. Main Outcome Measures: Visual acuity, findings on ophthalmoscopy, and results of fluorescein angiography. Results: Nine patients with CMTC diagnosed clinically based on stereotypical cutaneous vascular malformations were included. The median age at presentation was 8 weeks (range, 2 weeks–4 years). Six patients were female and 3 were male. Avascular retina was identified on dilated fundus examination, fluorescein angiography, or both in 11 eyes of 6 patients. Retinal neovascularization was present bilaterally in 2 patients at presentation. One patient demonstrated retinal venous tortuosity, and another patient showed mild straightening of nasal retinal vessels in both eyes. Two patients (2 eyes) demonstrated retinal detachment (RD). Both were managed surgically. One infant demonstrated RD, whereas the other child showed extensive neovascularization and later progressed to combined tractional-rhegmatogenous detachment. A unique constellation of lacy peripheral capillary anomalies with prominent terminal vascular bulbs was noted in 3 patients. Granular pigment abnormalities were noted in the macula in 5 patients. Two patients demonstrated glaucoma, 1 requiring surgical intervention. Two patients demonstrated features of Adams-Oliver syndrome, with genetic testing identifying a Notch1 mutation in 1 patient. Conclusions: Retinal vascular abnormalities in CMTC may occur more frequently than recognized previously. Given the variability of ocular involvement and the potential for rapidly progressive retinal vascular abnormalities and development of RD, complete ophthalmologic evaluation including measurement of intraocular pressure, gonioscopy, dilated fundus examination, and fluorescein angiography is recommended in infants with suspected CMTC shortly after birth. The distinct pattern of lacy capillary anomalies with prominent terminal bulbs seen in CMTC has not been described in other syndromes of vascular dysgenesis. Therefore, ophthalmic examination may be a valuable method to distinguish CMTC from other disorders demonstrating similar dermatologic and systemic manifestations.
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